In a medium mix bowl add flour, sugar and a pinch of salt and stir to combine.
In a separate bowl or cup, beat together egg yolks and water until well blended.
Add unsalted butter to flour mixture, using a pastry blender or a fork, cut the butter into the flour until the mixture resembles coarse crumbles, with some small pea-sized pieces.
Gradually mix in the egg mixture using a fork. It will be crumbly, use your hands to bring it together, it will moisten and the mixture will start to clump together. If the mixture is still too crumbly and not holding together when pressed, add an additional teaspoon of cold water. *Note this is not a wet dough, you do not want to add too much water.*
Shape dough into a thick disk, wrap with plastic wrap and place in the refrigerator while you make the cherry vanilla bean filling.
Slice the vanilla bean in half, remove seeds and place the seeds in a medium sauce pan, add the vanilla bean stem too. Add cherries, water, sugar, and cornstarch, stir to combine and heat a medium saucepan over medium heat. Bring to a boil; reduce heat to low and cook, stirring frequently, for about 10 minutes. Cool slightly and remove vanilla bean stem. Set aside to cool.
Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Line baking sheet with wax paper and set aside.
Remove dough from refrigerator. Roll out into a large rectangle, cut 6 rectangles from the dough, or whatever shape you desire. Add about 2 tablespoons of the filling to the center of one side the pastry, fold over the other half and press the edges, you can use a fork for texture if you would like. Brush the pastry with the melted butter and sprinkle the dough with turbinado sugar.
Using a metal spatula carefully place on to prepared pan, add remaining tarts and place in the oven to bake for 12-15 minutes or until golden brown. Let it cool to serve later or you may also serve immediately.